Multiplication and Division

Multiplication and Division is one of the 4 basic operations in Mathematics and once you start learning arithmetic and its operations, you will learn these operations including addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. In this section, we’ll look at multiplication and division.


Multiplication is a process of calculating a result when a number is repeatedly multiplied. The 2 numbers that are used for multiplication are called the factors and the answer is called the product. So, if you take this mathematical expression:

5 x 3 = 15

Here 5 and 3 are the factors and 15 is the product.

Multiplying single digit or even double-digit numbers (0-12) with each other in your head, requires memorization. A multiplication table can be used for this:

multiplication 1

For instance, if you want to find the value of 9 * 4,

multiplication 2

The answer is 36.

Long Multiplication

Long multiplication is a method used for multiplying large numbers. In this method, the factors are placed vertically over another and aligned to the right side.
For example, if you want to multiply 275 x 83, the factors need to be placed like:

X 83

Here there are 2 ways to multiply the numbers:

You can first multiply 275 x 3 = 825

Next you can multiply 275 x 80 = 22000

Next we add both these values together, 825 + 22000 = 22825

Or else you can use long multiplication to get the result

multiplication 3

It is important you line-up the columns, if you think leaving a space confuses, you can even add a zero like:

multiplication 4

long multiplication


Another important arithmetic operation is division, where you calculate the number of times one number is contained in another number. And remember the number of times may not always be an integer. In other words, division is nothing but an inverse operation of multiplication.

Take for example:

X = z / y or 4 = 8/2

Is the same as that of

X * y = z or 4 * 2 = 8

Dividing single, or double-digit numbers (0-12) in your head does require memorization. A division table can be used for this:


Long Division

In division, the number which is being divided is called the dividend and the number which divides it is called the divisor and the result is the quotient.

So, when you take at the expression:

530 / 10

Here, 530 is the dividend and 10 is the divisor.

division 2

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